Virus outbreaks have been increasing at an alarming rate in recent decades. COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) is the most recent human coronavirus to spread over the world. COVID-19 is highly contagious and spreads through a variety of mechanisms. According to recent research, SARS-CoV-2 spreads by micro-droplets released mostly from person to person or through contact with contaminated surfaces. When it comes to COVID-19 detection and diagnosis, tests based on specific nucleic acids and proteins, as well as point-of-care testing, are used. Nanotechnology, with its many applications, is an efficient and cost-effective method for improving these tests for SARS-CoV-2 detection. For viral detection, a range of nanomaterials such as metallic Nanoparticle, polymeric NP, silica NP, and carbon nanotubes have already been used.
Vaccination, which depends on the immune system's natural ability to generate protective long-term immunological memory, has proven to be one of the most effective health programs ever launched for preventing and/or controlling the spread of dangerous infections. Nanoparticles have recently garnered considerable attention as a viable way to develop a new generation of vaccinations, because they can act as both an antigen carrier and an adjuvant in many circumstances. Furthermore, nano-based vaccines can shield antigens from premature degradation and provide sustained release, improved antigen stability, and tailored immunogen delivery, as well as extend antigen exposure and uptake by antigen presenting cells (APCs).