Nanotechnology is the use of very small pieces of material, ranging in size from 1 to 100 nanometers, either alone or in combination with other materials to generate new large-scale materials with novel properties. Nanotechnology, to put it simply, is science, engineering, and technology carried out at the nanoscale. The term "nanotechnology" comes from the prefix "nano." A nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or a distance equivalent to two to twenty atoms lying side by side (depending on the type of atom). Many technical and industry sectors are benefiting from nanotechnology, including information technology, energy, environmental science, medicine, homeland security, food safety, and transportation, to name a few. Furthermore, nanotechnology and nanomaterials is a rapidly expanding field of research in which new properties of nanoscale materials can be exploited for industrial purposes, and a number of promising developments exist that have the potential to alter the service life and life-cycle cost of construction infrastructure to create a new world in the future.