One of the most pressing issues confronting humanity is environmental protection. We have unintentionally harmed our environment by producing and discarding plastics, contributed to climate change by extracting and burning fossil fuels, and polluted our air and streams with human-made creations over the years. Nanomaterials have unique physiochemical properties, such as versatile functionalities and enhanced reactivity or selectivity, when compared to their bulk counterparts; their high surface-area-to-volume ratio imparts unique physiochemical properties, such as versatile functionalities and enhanced reactivity or selectivity. Nanotechnology's unique properties can be used in a variety of products, methods, and applications to help safeguard the environment and climate, from saving raw resources, energy, and water to reducing greenhouse gases and harmful waste. The impact of nanotechnology on several sectors of environmental engineering has received a lot of attention in the previous decade. The application of nanostructured materials, as one of the most prominent fields for current research and development, has both positive and negative aspects. Understanding the possible risks of nanoscale materials to human health and weighing the benefits and risks of using such materials are critical.